SAP USER EXITS

Locating User Exits

Before you can add functionality to a SAP system, you need to be able to locate the appropriate user exits. SAP has provided around 2000 user exits.

Searching from transaction CMOD

Searching from the Application Hierarchy

Making your own customized search

Keep in mind that you must first search for an enhancement. Once you find an enhancement, you can display its components -- the actual user exits. Then you need to include the enhancement containing the required user exit as a component in your own project.

Method #1: Using Transaction CMOD

- Transaction CMOD contains search functionality to help locate enhancements.
- Selecting the "Utilities -> SAP enhancements" menu path in transaction CMOD will take you to an enhancement selection screen .

- You can limit the search for enhancements based on:

Enhancement name
Development class

- After clicking on the ‘Execute’ pushbutton (or ‘F8’) on the selection screen, the system will display a listing of the development classes that contain enhancements (see graphic above).

- From this listing, you can double-click a development class to display its enhancements.

- If you have clicked on the ‘Display components’ pushbutton on the selection screen (see graphic on previous page), the components of each enhancement will automatically be displayed.

Remark: To use this search method one must either know the part of the enhancement name or the development class. But if one looks at SAP’s naming convention for user exits (see note below), the screen numbers/program names/ function codes/etc are contained in the components name and there is no scope for that in selection options. Also one cannot restrict the search to only one type of exit.

Method #2: Using SAP Application Hierarchy

- Selecting the "Overview -> Applic. hierarchy -> SAP" menu path in the ABAP/4 Development Workbench will take you to a listing of all standard SAP applications and components .

- To locate a user exit for a particular application, follow these steps
from the SAP Application Hierarchy:

- Select the appropriate application by single clicking on it.
- Choose the "Edit Sel./desel. subtree" menu path.
- Click on the ‘Repository Infosys.’ pushbutton.
- This will take you to the ABAP/4 Repository Information System.
- Double click on the ‘Environment’ branch.
- Double click on the ‘Customer enhancement’ branch.
- Double-click on the ‘Customer exit’ branch.
- This will take you to the customer exit (or enhancement) selection screen with the appropriate development class for the application selecting on the Application Hierarchy.

- Click on the ‘Execute’ pushbutton.
- This will take you to a listing of all enhancements that meet the selection criteria.

From this listing, you can display the components of each enhancement and the documentation. You will be taken automatically to transaction SMOD from the ABAP/4 Repository Information System.

Remark: To use this one must have knowledge about the application hierarchy to which that particular enhancement belongs. Also one has to explode individual enhancements to identify weather the component is contained in that enhancement.

Like previous method, there is no scope for selection option on the components name.


Method #3:
Writing a small report program
The details about projects, enhancements and components are contained in two SAP tables:

MODSAP: containing enhancement name, type of exit and component
MODACT: containing project name and enhancements
Thus by writing a report program to retrieve data from these two tables, you can customize your search requirements. Code for one such sample program is attached in annexure A and the corresponding transaction code to execute this program is YSMD .

Using this you can list all components that match a particular string like the program name or the function code as well as search for only one type of exit.

NOTE: SAP’s naming convention for user exits-

· Program/Function exits : EXIT_AAAAAAAA_nnn where
AAAAAAAA stands for the program name which contains the exit and
nnn is a SAP assigned number starting from 001

· Menu exits : AAAAAAAA+XXX where
AAAAAAAA stands for the program name which contains the exit and
+XXX is the name of the function code contained in the menu item

· Screen Exits : AAAAAAAA_nnnn_BBBBBBBB_CCCCCCCC_mmmm where
AAAAAAAA : calling program name
nnnn : calling screen number
BBBBBBBB : area
CCCCCCCC : called program name
mmmm : called screen number

Source Code to find User Exits 1
************************************************************************
* REPORT YSMOD2
*
* SELECTION TEXTS : INPUT1 ----> Enter search term for Trxn.
* INPUT2 ----> Enter type of exit
************************************************************************
REPORT YSMOD2 .

TABLES: MODSAP, MODACT, TSTC.

PARAMETERS: INPUT1 LIKE TSTC-TCODE DEFAULT ' ',
INPUT2 LIKE MODSAP-TYP DEFAULT ' '.

DATA: SEARCH1(6),
SEARCH2(3),
SEARCH3 LIKE MODSAP-MEMBER.
DATA : FIRST_ROW VALUE 'Y'.

CONCATENATE: '%' INPUT1 '%' INTO SEARCH1,
'%' INPUT2 INTO SEARCH2.

SELECT * FROM TSTC WHERE TCODE LIKE SEARCH1.
FIRST_ROW = 'Y'.
CHECK TSTC-PGMNA NE SPACE.
CONCATENATE '%' TSTC-PGMNA '%' INTO SEARCH3.
SELECT * FROM MODSAP WHERE TYP LIKE SEARCH2
AND MEMBER LIKE SEARCH3.
SELECT SINGLE * FROM MODACT WHERE MEMBER = MODSAP-NAME.
IF FIRST_ROW EQ 'Y'.
WRITE: /0 TSTC-TCODE, 6 TSTC-PGMNA, 16 MODSAP-NAME, 32 MODSAP-TYP,
45 MODSAP-MEMBER, 70 MODACT-NAME.
FIRST_ROW = 'N'.
ELSE.
WRITE: /16 MODSAP-NAME, 32 MODSAP-TYP, 45 MODSAP-MEMBER, 70 MODACT-NAME.
ENDIF.
CLEAR : MODSAP, MODACT.
ENDSELECT.
IF SY-SUBRC NE 0.
WRITE : /0 TSTC-TCODE, 6 TSTC-PGMNA, 30 'No exits found'.
ENDIF.
CLEAR TSTC.
ENDSELECT.

END-OF-SELECTION.
CLEAR: SEARCH1, SEARCH2, SEARCH3.

Source Code to Locate User Exits
************************************************************************
* REPORT YSMOD
*
* SELECTION TEXTS : INPUT1 ----> Enter search term for Enhancmn
* INPUT2 ----> Enter type of exit
* INPUT3 ----> Enter search term for componen
************************************************************************
REPORT YSMOD .

TABLES: MODSAP, MODACT.

PARAMETERS: INPUT1 LIKE MODSAP-NAME DEFAULT ' ',
INPUT2 LIKE MODSAP-TYP DEFAULT ' ',
INPUT3 LIKE MODSAP-MEMBER DEFAULT ' '.

DATA: SEARCH1 LIKE MODSAP-NAME,
SEARCH2(3), " like modsap-typ,
SEARCH3 LIKE MODSAP-MEMBER.

CONCATENATE: '%' INPUT1 '%' INTO SEARCH1,
'%' INPUT2 INTO SEARCH2,
'%' INPUT3 '%' INTO SEARCH3.

SELECT * FROM MODSAP WHERE NAME LIKE SEARCH1
AND TYP LIKE SEARCH2
AND MEMBER LIKE SEARCH3.
SELECT SINGLE * FROM MODACT WHERE MEMBER = MODSAP-NAME.
WRITE: /10 MODSAP-NAME, 30 MODSAP-TYP, 45 MODSAP-MEMBER, 70 MODACT-NAME.
CLEAR : MODSAP, MODACT.
ENDSELECT.

IF SY-SUBRC NE 0.
WRITE : /'Not found'.
ENDIF.

END-OF-SELECTION.
CLEAR: SEARCH1, SEARCH2, SEARCH3.

Step by step procedure for creating Field Exits

There are eight steps to creating a field exit:

Step 1: Determine Data Element
Step 2: Go To Field Exit Transaction
Step 3: Create Field Exit
Step 4: Create Function Module
Step 5: Code Function Module
Step 6: Activate Function Module
Step 7: Assign Program/Screen
Step 8: Activate Field Exit

Step 1: Determine Data Element

- Before you can begin adding the functionality for a field exit, you must know the corresponding data element.

- An easy way to determine the data element associated to a particular screen field is to:
Go the appropriate screen.
Position the cursor in the appropriate field.
Press ‘F1’ for field-level help.
Click on the ‘Technical info’ pushbutton (or press ‘F9’) on the help dialog box.

On this Technical Information dialog box, the data element will be specified if the field is 'painted' from the ABAP/4 Dictionary.


Step 2: Go To Field Exit Transaction

- The transaction to create field exits is CMOD.
- You can use the menu path Tools -> ABAP/4 Workbench -> Utilities -> Enhancements -> Project management.

- From the initial screen of transaction CMOD, choose the Text enhancements -> Field exits menu path.

- After choosing this menu path, you will be taken to the field exits screen. From here, you can create a field exit.

NOTE : Even though you use transaction CMOD to maintain field exits, you do not need to create a project to activate field exits.


Step 3: Create Field Exit

- From the field exit screen of transaction CMOD, choose the Field exit -> Create menu path.

- After choosing this menu path, a dialog box will prompt you for the appropriate data element .

- Enter the data element name and click the ‘Continue’ pushbutton.
- Now, you will be able to create the function module associated to the data element’s field exit.

Step 4: Create Function Module

- You will automatically be taken to the Function Library (SE37) after entering a data element name and clicking the ‘Continue’ pushbutton.

- In the ‘Function module’ field, a function module name will be defaulted by the system based on the data element specified. This name will have the following convention:
FIELD_EXIT_

- You can add an identifier (an underscore followed by a single character ).
- The first function module for a data element’s field exit must be created without an identifier.

- To create the function module, click on the ‘Create’ pushbutton, choose menu path Function module -> Create, or press ‘F5’.

- After choosing to create the function module, you will get the warning: "Function module name is reserved for SAP". This message is just a warning so a developer does not accidentally create a function module in the field exit name range. By pressing ‘Enter’, you will be able to go ahead and create the function module.

- Before coding the function module, you will have to specify the function modules attributes -- function group, application, and short text.


Step 5: Code Function Module


- From the function module’s attributes screen, click on the ‘Source code’ pushbutton or choose the Goto -> Function module menu path to the code of the function module.

- Here you will add your desired functionality for the field exit.
- Remember that field exit’s function module will have two parameters -- one importing parameter called "INPUT" and one exporting parameter called "OUTPUT". These parameters will be set up automatically by the system.

- You must remember to assign a value to the OUTPUT field. Even if the value does not change, it must be moved from the INPUT field to the OUTPUT field.

Step 6: Activate Function Module

- After coding the function module, you must remember to activate it.
- Use the Function module -> Activate menu path to activate the function module.
- At this point, you can return to the field exit transaction.
- You should be able to 'green arrow' back to this transaction.
- When you return to the field exit transaction, you will see an entry for the newly created field exit.

- At this point, the field exit is global. That is, it applies to all screens that use a particular data element. On any screen that uses the data element, the corresponding field exit function module will be triggered, once it is active.
- Also, the field exit will not be triggered yet because it is inactive.


Step 7: Assign Program/Screen

- This step is only needed if you want to make a field exit local.
- To make a field exit local, select the field exit and click on the ‘Assign prog./screen’ pushbutton.

- In the dialog box , indicate the appropriate program name and screen number.
This information indicates that the field exit is local to the specified screen in the specified program.

- In the dialog box, you determine which function module gets executed for the field exit by specifying the identifier in the ‘Fld. Exit’ field.
- If this field is left blank, the function module triggered will be 'FIELD_EXIT_'.

- If a single-character identifier is entered into the field, the function module triggered will be 'FIELD_EXIT__'.

Step 8: Activate Field Exit

- The field exit must be active for it to be triggered by the system.
- Activate the field exit by choosing the Field exit -> Activate menu path.
- After assigning the field exit to a change request, its status will change to ‘Active’ and it will be triggered automatically on the appropriate screen(s).

NOTE : In order to activate the field exit the profile parameter abap/fieldexit = YES must be set on all application servers

Step by step procdure for creating Menu Exits

PART A: Search for the menu exit.

1. A menu exit is a way to add a menu item and corresponding functionality to the menu bar of an SAP transaction. The first step is to navigate to the screen where you want to attach menu exit.

2. Go to the menu painter of that screen through system -> status and look for function codes in the menu bar that start with a plus sign. These are the menu's which can be enhanced.


PART B: Attaching your own menu.


3. Run transaction YSMD (available in 3.1G) to identify the Enhancement and the Component which contains that exit or search it through transaction SMOD.

Note : All menu exits will have the function code name with the plus sign as the last four characters of the component.

4. Include the Enhancement in your own project through transaction CMOD.

5. Go to Enhancement Components a
And double click on the component name to give your own text to the menu item.
6. Activate the project.

At this point the menu item will appear, but it will have no functionality.

PART C: Adding functionality to the menu item.

The new menu item can have functionality in four ways:
predefined functionality by SAP programmer
transaction code
program exit
area menu'

7. You do not have control over the first method of functionality to a menu exit. In some cases, SAP programmers will have predefined code that is executed once you activate the menu exit.

8. If the menu exit function code is a type “T” function code, you will need to create a transaction code to add functionality to the new menu item. (To find the type of the function code, just double click on the function code in the GUI screen) The transaction code should have the same name as the function code (remember: it will start with a plus sign). The transaction code you create can either call an online (module pool) program or a report. You can create a transaction code from the object browser.

9. If the functionality for a menu exit is to be placed in a program exit, the menu exit and corresponding program exit will belong to the same enhancement.

Examining the enhancement that contains the menu exit can give you an initial indication that a program exit is needed to add functionality. You can code the program exit by double clicking on the component in your project or examining the SAP code to find the corresponding check of the function code triggered. For the appropriate function code, you will see a “CALL CUSTOMER-FUNCTION” statement.

10. The last way of adding functionality is through area menu’s. An area menu is a transaction that serves as a collection point for several other transactions. Unlike other dialog transactions, area menus do not have underlying programs, hence, you cannot append your own functions to them.

No screens accompany an area menu. An area menu has only one title and status, both of which are assigned by the system. Area menus allow you to create menus containing functions that are customized for a particular function in your company. Creating an area menu is similar to creating a standard menu. However, instead of specifying functions for menu options you specify transaction codes.

To navigate to area menu’s choose Development -> Other tools -> Area menus. The name of the area menu should be same as that of the function code of the menu exit.


Step by step procedure for creating Screen Exits


PART A: Search for the screen exit.

1. A screen exit is a way to add a sub-screen and corresponding functionality to an SAP transaction. The first step is to navigate to the screen where you want to attach menu exit.

2. Go to the field list of that screen through system -> status or F1 -> Technical details and look for fields that have subscreen as the field type for that particular screen. These are the area's on the main screen which can be enhanced.

PART B: Creating your own subscreen.

3. Identify the enhancement and its component that has the provision for creating the screen exit for that particular screen.

Note A: To know more about how to identify the enhancement, refer to the document on Locating User Exits.

Note B: All SAP provided subscreen’s may not have the scope for enhancement. There are a limited number of transactions which has scope for screen exit. Refer to Annexure A for details.

4. Include the Enhancement in your own project through transaction CMOD.
5. Go to Enhancement Components and double click on the component name.
6. It will take you to the screen attributes for that particular subscreen.
· The screen type should be subscreen.
· Maintain the size of the subscreen through Lines/Columns attribute. This should correspond to the size of the subscreen mentioned in the main SAP screen.

· The development class for the subscreen should be the development class for the project.

7. Create the subscreen using the fullscreen editor.
8. You can add your own modules in the subscreen’s flow logic. However, one has to be careful regarding data transfer between the main screen and the subscreen. For more details refer to R/3 On-line Help.
9. Generate the screen.

PART C: Activating the project

10. Use the back button to navigate back to the project enhancement main screen.
11. Activate the project.

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1 comment :

  1. Thanks for the User Exits Tutorial. Its very easy to understand for freshers.

    Thanks

    ReplyDelete